What are the most famous mathematicians and what they have done in this field? Here we present 10 the most famous mathematicians and what they have done for this field.
Thales of Miletus lived in the years 620-540 p.n.e. He was the author of many theorems in geometry. The first and essential of the theorems of Thales of Miletus was that of the diameter dividing the circle into two halves and of two equal angles, which occur at the base of an isosceles triangle. However, this one would be wrong, who thinks, that's it, For Thales also claimed two lines that intersect, which always form equal opposite angles; and about it, that the angle inscribed in the semicircle is a right angle. One of his great merits is the claim, that the triangle is always defined, as long as the length of the base and the angles at the base are given. It is undoubtedly a lot, especially if you add to that, that Thales could measure the height of the pyramids from the length of the shadow and could predict the solar eclipse of the year 585 p.n.e.
The life of Pythagoras took place in approx. 572 – 497 p.n.e. He introduced and systematized proofs in geometry, also establishing the concept of the so-called similarity of figures. Fact is one of the essentials, that Pythagoras had many distinguished disciples, which reinforced his theorem on the sum of angles in a triangle, giving, however, not only the construction of some polyhedra and figures such as regular polygons, because the Pythagorean disciples also invented rational numbers.
Plato living in the years 427 – 347 p.n.e. he was not a mathematician, but it was mathematics that fascinated him, especially geometry. He invented a type of construction called Platonic construction – According to Plato, allowed geometric constructions could only be carried out with the use of tools such as compasses and rulers, which justified it, that only a straight line and a circle could - as he called it – slide on itself.
Aristotle was Plato's student, an extraordinary scientist, living in years 384 – 322 p.n.e. He introduced concepts such as an axiom into the mathematical dictionary, axiom, or the theorem and the proof.
Euclid, that is, the ancient scholar, living in the years approx. 365 – 300 p.n.e. made the famous work called "Elements", and especially popular because of this, that it was the first attempt at an axiomatic approach to geometry, then becoming the basic textbook of geometry until the nineteenth century.
Archimedes, scholar living approx. 287 – 212 p.n.e. he was the precursor of the infinite calculus. Most importantly, he was this, which was the first mathematician in history to be able to give an approximate value for pi. Based on this, he derived the formulas for the surface and volume of the sphere, as well as the cylinder and the spherical canopy.
Galileusz, that is, a scientist born in 1564., he died in 1642 r., becoming this Italian physicist for posterity, mechanic, astronomer and mathematician, who in his works introduced an important tool in the form of the very concept of "vector". As for math alone, Galileo was also famous for popularizing the horizontal and diagonal projection.
Blaise Pascal lived in the years 1623-1662 being an accomplished French mathematician. Having barely 16 years Pascal wrote a work entitled “About conical intersections” , concerning, inter alia,. plane curves, including the so-called Pascal snail. In addition, Pascal left behind works on theoretical arithmetic and algebra, further discovering how to calculate Newton's coefficients. And as if that were not enough, this outstanding scientist proved his class by contributing also to the foundations of the theory of probability and partly also of the calculus of differential.
Izaak Newton (1642-1727) he held the chair of mathematics and physics at Cambridge University. The work of this brilliant mind, how great physics and mathematics, left the basics of differential and integral calculus. Isaac Newton's greatest work was “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” (“Mathematical foundations of natural philosophy”), work published in the year 1687.
Stefan Banach (1892-1945) was an outstanding Polish scientist and mathematician, lecturer, author of many textbooks, also math textbooks for high school students. Banach's first works concerned the so-called Fourier series, and in addition to orthogonal series and functions, or finally the Maxwell equations themselves. Stefan Banach also dealt with derivative functions, measurable and theories of measurement. Above all, his merits include grounding, hence the application of the so-called functional analysis.